The Great Square of Pegasus is an asterism formed by three bright stars in Pegasus constellation – Markab, Scheat and Algenib – and Alpheratz in the neighbouring constellation Andromeda. For northern observers, the asterism is particularly prominent in the summer months, when it can be seen high overhead in the evening.
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The Southern Pinwheel Galaxy, also known as Messier 83 (M83), is a barred spiral galaxy located in Hydra constellation. M83 lies at a distance of 15 million light years from Earth. It is one of the nearest and brightest spiral galaxies, and can even be seen in binoculars. The galaxy appears face-on when viewed from Earth.
Messier 83 was nicknamed the Southern Pinwheel Galaxy because of its prominent, very well defined spiral arms, which give the galaxy an appearance similar to the famous Pinwheel Galaxy (Messier 101), located in Ursa Major. Messier 83 has the designation NGC 5236 in the New General Catalogue.
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The Antennae Galaxies, also known as the Ringtail Galaxy or Arp 244, are a pair of colliding galaxies located in Corvus constellation. The interacting spiral galaxies have the designations NGC 4038 and NGC 4039 in the New General Catalogue.
The galaxy collision resembles an insect’s antennae, which is how the pair got the name. The “antennae” are formed by two long tails of stars, dust and gas expelled from the galaxies as a result of their interaction.
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The Triangulum Galaxy, also known as Messier 33 (M33), is a spiral galaxy in Triangulum constellation. The galaxy’s designation in the New General Catalogue is NGC 598. It lies at an approximate distance of 3 million light years from Earth and has a diameter of about 50,000 light years.
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The galaxy was named after the constellation which, in turn, was named after the mythical princess Andromeda, daughter of Cassiopeia and Cepheus, in Greek mythology.
Andromeda Galaxy is one of the most famous objects in the night sky, and the nearest spiral galaxy to our own, the Milky Way. It is on a collision course with the Milky Way, and the two galaxies are expected to merge in about 4 billion years.
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